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Cervical Cancer

March 30, 2022

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the lower part of the uterus called the cervix – a part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

It is believed to be caused by various strains of human papillomaviruses (HPV), a group of viruses that cause sexually transmitted infections.

When the human body is exposed to HPV, the body’s immune system typically prevents the infection from viruses but sometimes people with weaker immune systems cannot fight against the infection caused by HPV, which results in the virus surviving in their body for years, contributing to the process of cervical cells becoming cancerous cells.

But the risk of developing cervical cancer can be reduced by getting vaccinated against HPV and having regular screening tests.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

In the early stages, the disease might reflect no symptoms at all therefore it’s advisable to have regular screening tests which are known to detect the chances of having cancer.

The most common symptoms of Cervical cancer are:

  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse.
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul smell.
  • Vaginal discharge tinged with blood.
  • Bleeding cases in post-menopausal women.
  • Frequent bleeding except for periods.
  • Discomforting sexual intercourses.
  • Pelvic pain

These symptoms may have other causes as well, like a vaginal infection. Therefore, it is advisable to consult a medical expert before coming to any conclusion.

Cause of Cervical Cancer

  • Poor vaginal hygiene
  • Smoking
  • Increased number of childbirths
  • HIV infection
  • Prolonged use of oral contraceptive pills
  • Sexual intercourse with multiple partners

Stages of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer has a total of 5 stages, stage 1,2,3,4 along with stage 0. The staging system helps the medical expert to determine the spread of disease, based on that the effective treatment is also decided.

  • Stage 0 – Stage 0 is when the precancerous or the cells that may develop into cancerous cells are present.
  • Stage 1 – In stage 1, the cancerous cells are not just limited to the surface, they start growing into deeper tissues of the cervix, nearby cells of the uterus, and lymph nodes.
  • Stage 2 – In stage 2, the cancerous cells have moved beyond the uterus and cervix, but not as far as to the walls of the pelvis or the lower part of the vagina. In this stage, it may or may not affect the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3 – In stage 3, cancerous cells are fully spread in the lower part of the vagina or the walls of the pelvis, and might be blocking the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the bladder).
  • Stage 4 – In stage 4, the cancerous cells affect the bladder or rectum, growing out of the walls of the pelvis. It will also spread to the distant organs including the liver, lungs, bones, and lymph nodes

Prevention measures for Cervical Cancer

  • Limit the number of sexual partners.
  • Practice safe sex using protection methods like condoms or dental dams.
  • Delay the first sexual intercourse until the late teens or older.
  • Avoid sexual intercourse with those who had multiple partners.
  • Quit smoking.

Stages of Cervical Cancer

Treatment of cervical cancer includes traditional surgical methods, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or sometimes a combination of all these.

The medical expert will decide the type of treatment after determining the stage of cervical cancer and its overall growth in the body.

Treatment at the initial stages has a greater
success rate therefore it is advisable for women to get regularly screened for cervical cancer.

At Apollo CBCC Cancer Care, Ahmedabad, we have a specialized team for treating cancers. If the problem persists, consult with our experts now.

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